Day 16: ICIT-led workshop

Day 13: Presentations in Stromness and Field work at the Stromness Museum
October 7, 2016
Day 17: ICIT-led Workshops
October 12, 2016

Day 16: ICIT-led workshop

Group 1 Summary:

In the morning, we have short fieldtrip to the channel between Mainland and Hoy with Cat Marrison, Peter Long, Simon, David Woolf, Rob Harris. We learned that the channel where tidal Atlantic sea and north sea meet could be possible as source of energy.

Workshop 1: Propagation of Tides in Deep Ocean by Rob Harris, David Woolf,and Simon

There are two things contributes tides energy, they are current power, and tides range. Type of tidal in Indonesia is mixed tides. Indonesia has a large variation of tides, but narrow range compared to UK. The variation comes from the various area related to large area and numbers of islands. The current strenght comes from channels between islands. According to Goto island project, assessment on environment has to do for decision using the current differences harvesting energy.

Modelling the marine situation for putting the marine energy harvesting devices need a lot of considerations. The data which should put in the model are quite large, not only the current potency. However, others thing such as marine life, environment, fishing industry, and social situation should be consideration.

The main factors for assessment the marines energies, in the modelling:

  1. Current, tidals, water flow, wave
  2. Marine life: mammals,fish, bird and other marine creature
  3. The sound by the devices that give influence on the environment
  4. Communities

The area that need to be studied more to support the tidal energy implemetation:

  1. Historical data of the environtment, 10 years data.
  2. Create modeling
  3. Validating data and modelling
  4. Understanding long term effects toward the environtment.


Workshop 2: Governance, Planning and the Ambition for Blue Growth by Kate Johnson, Stefani

It should be balance between marine industry and protection marine life. Food & energy security in UK expected three points: job & economic growth, good environmental status, equitable access.

Scotland’s achievement:

  1. Establishment marine Scotland government
  2. Statutory marine spatial planning
  3. Legal authority to designation of marine protected area
  4. Streamlined development consent: flowchart of the works.

Scotland need 7 years in establishing EIA (Environmmental Impact Assessment), and there are many things to complete the data related to proposing the prescripts plan. A renewable industry is considered new industry, which facing uncertainty ecology, uncertainty industries, and uncertainty how people interacted to the industry.


Workshop 3: Marine Energy Technology by Collin Bullen, Rob Harris

In setting up the tidal stream devices, there are some factors need to be cosidered: recent developments, location of tidal current, capability to generate in both tide direction, water direction, and strategic power. Tidal stream power in a channel is influenced by variation of current speed over a month, cross section of a simple channel, and variation of velocity over a cross-section of a channel.

Ideal site of tidal current are abundant clean flow (minimal turbulence), rectilinear flow, sufficient depth, seabed condition, accessible for construction and maintenance, Grid connection, Minimal impact on environment and other sea users, and good support infrastucture. Many devices can be chose for energy extraction, however, the one more efficient and less impact to the marine life should be considered. Currently, the most efficient devices needs further assessment.

Waves characteristics that favourable to be waves energy source are the waves travel long distances, power steady both daily and seasonal, contain 1000 times the KE of the wind. The electricity will delivered by transformation conversion and piping into power generator and the generator will send electricity to user. The area that has wave power potential are southern Australia, South America, South Africa, North America and Scotland.


Group 2  Summary:

Monday 10 October

Today there are 3 series workshop on Marine Energy with ICIT Team. Knowledge exchange and development of collaborative research networks are the objectives. The workshop was interactive.


Starting the day by visiting the Point of Ness for approximately one hour. We walked about 500 m to a place near Link Battery where in proximity there is an area with strong tidal stream from North Atlantic meets current from the North Sea. However, this area is not suitable for installing tidal wave devices due to important ferry traffics, fishery and other activities.


Returning back to Stromness, we had 3 series workshop at Warehouse Buildings.

  • 1. Marine energy resources

Facilitated by Dr. David Woolf and Dr. Rob Harris from ICIT, Herriot Watt University – Orkney

They explained how to model and measure wave and tidal energy resources.

Tidal modelling with the case study in Japan. Modelling is simplification of the real world, thus need to choose which model is robust. Some consideration are potential places with high tidal current, simulation tidal turbine and the effect of installing the equipment, destruction of biota or environment, and economic activities at surrounding area.


  • 2. Marine spatial planning

Facilitated by Dr. Kate Johnson and Steffanie


Governance, Planning and the ambition for Blue Growth

Marine planning in Europe for food and energy security: antisipation of development includes

– create jobs n economic growth

– good environmental status

– Equitable access


Maritime industries – Shipping, Navigation, Fisheries, Oil&Gas, Aggregates, offshore energy, aquaculture, minerals, recreation, reclaimed land

There are at least 4 legal aspects to support area becoming marine protected area or special protected area

Bridging planning to government policy to provide National marine planning framework, considering UK Marine Policy Statement for high level objectives, followed by National Marine Plan (Scotland) which divided into plans and appraisal.


  • 3. Marine energy technologies

Facilitated by Mr. Collin Bullen and Dr. Rob Harris

Discussion was focused on technology solutions to exploit marine energy resources.

They explained the development of tidal stream devices and implementation planning.

Some important steps in installing devices:

  • Understand the characteristics of tidal streams
    • variation of current speed over one month
    • variation of velocity over a cross sect of a channel
  • Feasibility study on tidal current site to match with ideal criteria:
  • abundance clean flow
  • rectilinear flow
  • sufficient depth
  • seabed condition
  • accessible for construction and maintenance
  • proximity to a suitable landfall grid connection
  • minimal impact on environment and other sea users
  • initial sites with good support infrastructure

Tidal Generation Technologies:
Starting from open hydro, 250kW test rig by EMEC in 2006 until Voith Siemens Hytide 1MW and Alstom Hydro 1MW in 2013.

Other example is Wave technology:
Wave power potential/resources is approximately twice to world electricity consumption.
There are 4 type of devices

  1. Shoreline – OWC
  2. Nearshore (bottom standing: surface piercing or submerged) – OWC and point absorbers
  3. Offshore(floating) – attenuator
  4. Hybrids – overtopping/ reservoir storage


Study case in Indonesia has been initiated in Tabang by installing run of river hydro using local material for low cost and suitability.

As archipelagos, the potential tidal stream and waves need to be explore to generate renewable energy.


Group 3  Summary: Field trip to link battery & Workshop Marine Energy

There are two place was visited. First, Point of Ness for look around the link battery site. Ness Battery was a crucial element of the defenses of Scapa Flow. An extensive programmed of stabilization and renovation was completed and the site is now open for guided tours. Visit to Ness point are to see the tidal channel of Hoy Sound for the topic of marine energy resources. Dr David Woolf and Dr Rob Harris explain the waves that come into the channel, its velocity and the direction. This site was says not really appropriate for wave energy application because there is a wave turbulence in certain day.

Second place was visited is Warehouse Building, Stromness for workshop marine energy. We met some peoples who working on marine energy technology e.g. Simon, Piter Long, Prof. Rob Harris, Sandy Kerr, Dr. David Woolf, Dr. K. Jonson, and Collin Bullen.

Marine energy also sometimes referred to as blue energy refers to the energy carried by ocean waves and tides. The movement of water in the oceans creates a vast store of kinetic energy, or energy in motion. This energy can be harnessed to generate electricity.Scotland has marine energy plan for sustainable energy. There are five marine plans:

      1. Local jurisdiction
      2. National & local funding
      3. Zetland country council act 1974
      4. Way of life argument
      5. Community benefit.

The selection of the engine installation site must meet certain requirements.The ideal tidal current site are:

      1. Abundant clean flow, that means minimal turbulence
      2. Rectilinear flow or narrow tidal ellipse
      3. Sufficient depth
      4. Good/stable seabed condition
      5. Proximity to a suitable
      6. Initial site with good
      7. Minimal impact.

Wave energy that used for electricity as follow.

      1. Favorable characteristic without energy loss
      2. Ppower availability
      3. Best location offshore (more than 50 m).


Group 4 Summary: Visiting Ness Battery and having workshops on marine energy technology

October 10th 2016
Orkney Islands, Scotland

In the morning, we visited to Point of Ness, which is a starting point for a coastal walk in a fascinating mixture of flora and fauna, geology and wartime history. Here we met Dr. Robert Harris, Dr. David Woolf, and Simon, who is PhD student at Heriot Watt University at Orkney.  We also can see Link Battery, one of six caost batteries which guarded the western approaches to Scapa Flow. A-twin 6-pounder gun was installed here to defend the Royal Navy’s anchorage against attack by motor torpedo boats. Also near here we can see the engine rooms which housed powerful generators to provide electricity for the searchlights. The main engine room, a Nissen hut covered in concrete, now houses the lawn mowers for Stromness Golf Club.

After that we went to Orkney Library and Archive, to attend three workshops on ‘Living Marine Resources’ with facilitators from the International Center for Islands Technology (ICIT), Heriot-Watt University, Orkney Campus.

In the first workshop Dr. Robert Harris, Dr. David Woolf, and Simon presented their research work on modelling the current and flow of tide for producing energy.  During the discussion, there were some important points to be noted.  First, they have not yet built wave or tidal marine energy plants in commercial scale, because there were so many things to be considered to build such kind of energy plants, and they had to understand exactly the behavior of the sea and its environment, as well as the impacts of such plants on the environment now and in the future. Second, modelling of the current and flow of the tides is one way that can help in predicting the potential of wave and tidal energy.  Third, some field testings and validations of the models are also needed.

In the second workshop Dr. Kate Johnson and Stephanie, a PhD student, presented the topic Governance, Planning and The Ambition for Blue Growth.  They explained the experience of Europe in Marine Planning. The main drivers are creating jobs from marine environment, and protecting the marine environment.  There should be policy to make the ambition comes true.  In Scotland, there is The Marine Scotland Act 2010, so that that they could have integrated approaches for marine management and planning.

After having lunch we had the third workshop on Marine Energy Technologies, especially tidal and wave energies, with Dr. Rob E. Harris dan Dr. Colin E. Bullen as facilitators.   They shared their knowledge on the constructions of tidal and wave energy technology, different kinds of tidal stream devices, the characteristics of tidal streams, some prototypes of tidal generation technology, and different classifications of wave energy based on location, reaction means, etc.

After the three workshops, Dr. Mike Bell facilitated the discussion on the summary of the day and explained about the plan of the workshops for tomorrow.

In the evening, started at 19.30 we had informal discussion with masters student of Heriot Watt University.  Dr. Gareth Davies became the host of the event.  First we introduced ourselves, then Dr. Gareth explained a little bit about Indonesia, and some potential locations for the application of renewable energy, especially marine energy.  After that Dr. Wahyu Dwianto delivered a presentation about Bioenergy, Biovillage and Biosphere Reserved Area in Indonesia.  There were also a presentation delivered by Heliot Watt University’s students regarding what they do at the University.


Group 5 Summary

Day/date: Monday, 10 October 2016

Visit to the Point of Ness with Cat, Peter and Simon.

Discussions facilitated by Rob Harris and David Woolf.

From this visit we have informed about the geographic and geology of the Point of Ness. It is a starting point a coastal walk taking in a fascinating mixture of flora and fauna, geology and maritime history. We can see mountainous islands from the shore. They explained us about the strong winds and tidal waves created by the current meetings between Atlantic Ocean and North Ocean. However, since the area is business economic lane so that it is not allowed to put renewable energy plant on it.


Workshop Topic 1: Marine Energy Resources.

Location: Warehouse Building, Stromness

Discussions facilitated by Rob Harris and David Woolf.

They shared information and discussed on modelling and measurement of marine energy resources and their extraction. The noted point is on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to ensure that the power plant has low impacts to marine biodiversity, natural resources and environments also community including ships lane, etc.


Workshop 2: Governance, Planning and the Ambition for Blue Growth.

Location: Warehouse Building, Stromness

Discussions facilitated by Kate Jonhson and Stephanie (PhD student). They shared information and discussed on approached to build and balance the needs and impacts of multiple users of marine resources for energy e,g. marine planning framework, local jurisdiction, sustainability appraisal, way of life argument, community benefits, etc.


Workshop 3: Marine Energy Technology

Location: Warehouse Building, Stromness

Discussions facilitated by Collin Bullen and Rob. Harris. They shared information and discussed on tidal and wave power potential for renewable energy and its technologies. Some criteria of ideal site to build are must be considered.


Informal meeting with academia of HWU-ICIT at ICIT campus, Orkney

It was informal meeting which program including introduction of each parties (LIPI & HWU-ICIT students). Pak Wahyu was representing the Bioresources Group presents about Development of bio-village and bio-energy at Biosphere Reserve Areas in Indonesia in which one of them is Wakatobi Island.